Table 1

Taxonomy of Christian voice-hearing experiences (after Cook 2020)

ConversionOnce in a lifetime/infrequentConversion experiencePositiveUsually understood to be God (or Jesus or the Holy Spirit)
CallingVocational decision
CrisisLife/death crises
ComfortDifficult circumstances
CommunicationsMay be infrequent or ongoingWider relevanceMay be positive or negativeMay be God, another personal spiritual being (good or evil), or an alter ego
ConversationalInner dialogue
Usually more frequent/everydayPrayer
CompanionsDaily life