Table 1

Value-led spatial framework: correlating treatment values with corresponding spaces within the hospital’s physical environment

Treatment valueArchitectural spaces/features capable of supporting this treatment value
Optimise privacy and dignity.Pertains to balancing opportunities for ease of surveillance with the maintenance of patient privacy; of particular relevance for bathroom, bedroom, relaxation and de-escalation spaces (including landscape access). Operates at an ‘individual’ scale.
Provide the least restrictive environment possible.Hospital layouts; relative to providing variable degrees of access (that can be tailored to individual patients), including access to landscape and social and recreational spaces. Operates at the ‘hospital’ scale.
Inpatient layouts; how these are arranged and the granularity of patient cohort options they allow relative to cohorting smaller groups of patients with similar levels of restriction/or variable inpatient designs to enable a variety of spatial experience across the campus. Operates at an ‘individual’ scale.
Optimise choice and independence.A choice of social, recreational and treatment spaces. Operates at the ‘hospital’ scale.
Other spaces/features to support overlap with the category above.
Architecture that reflects the treatment journey.Variable spatial experiences—functionally and aesthetically (where possible)—so that the buildings reflect when patients have been accorded greater trust/enabled greater self-direction or freedom of movement within and around campus. Operates at the ‘hospital’ scale.
Involvement of peer-led therapeutic processes, involvement of family and community-based care providers.Spaces dedicated to accommodating these functions or flexible enough to do so; visitor spaces, social, treatment and recreational spaces, spatial allowances for other providers to operate within, or on the boundaries of a hospital complex. Operates at the ‘hospital’ scale.