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Public hygiene and funeral rituals during the Risorgimento: mummies and ashes
  1. Silvia Marinozzi1,
  2. Daniela Messineo2,3,
  3. Valentina Gazzaniga4,
  4. Silvia Iorio1
  1. 1 Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Lazio, Italy
  2. 2 Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Lazio, Italy
  3. 3 Umberto I Policlinico di Roma, Roma, Italy
  4. 4 Medico-surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Lazio, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Dr Daniela Messineo, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Roma 00185, Italy; daniela.messineo{at}


Starting in 1865, regulations pursuant to public hygiene issued by the Unitary Government provided for administrative and political control of the funerary practice. Specifically, they regulated the management of cemeteries and the burials, increasingly drawing the funeral rituals from the control of the Church and of Catholicism, therefore secularising death for the construction of a new political religion. Hygiene became fundamental in order to promulgate cremation as a system of preserving the integrity of the bodies, preserving the ashes as a tangible and indestructible product of body matter and as a measure to protect public health by eliminating the risk of miasmatic pollution of the air caused by the cadaveric fumes. In the early 1870s, the practice of cremation began to spread, especially in the territories of Lombardy-Veneto and Savoy, as an expression of the progressive policies of the new Italian state, antagonistic to the old Catholic religious traditions. This paper intends to highlight the key aspects of the political significance that the cremation took on during the Risorgimento period, while also illustrating the methods adopted by important authors from that time period regarding incineration techniques and cremation methods.

  • cultural history
  • medical humanities
  • public health
  • cultural studies
  • medical anthropology

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  • Contributors SM performed an original research on medical text of XIX century, also analysing the techniques and the value of the cremation and of the embalming during the Risorgimento. DM studied the instruments and the techniques of crematorium, to better explain the differences among systems. VG directed the research. SI analysed the use and the value of the photos of the corpses during the Victorian period.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement There are no data in this work.